She goes on to highlight the antique notions of difference that haunt perceptions by native Spaniards of more recent North African immigrants to Spain, declaring: Throughout my fieldwork I observed a number of characteristics of the production and reception of different genres of popular music in Morocco that reflected contrasting attitudes by individuals toward what it meant to be Moroccan in the modern world. Music has been particularly prone to this sort of folklorizing, given its easily commodifiable and free-floating signification up-for-grabs nature, where both local and foreign, and small-scale and mass-market efforts, can be utilized as channels for public consumption and recognition. His depiction of the prevailing spirit of community in that town, which was able to absorb difference in the form of newer immigrants, emphasizes the acceptance by the native Catalans there of North African immigrants. Contemporary considerations of the more classical origins and applications of the term cosmopolitan — e. I had little reckoning yet of the difference that the often gritty, rough, loud, and dense ambience of those Moroccan locales within which I would be pursuing my investigations into popular music in Morocco held in contrast to the more measured, even elegant contexts in which Kamal was presenting his musical performances. Most often these individuals either seemed more culturally predisposed toward such relocation due to class, education, and individual family orientation suggesting a relatively privileged cosmopolitansim , or they were simply more pragmatic in their search for opportunities for a better livelihood abroad then they could find at home.
When I first landed in Fez in , the topic of American gospel music among some Moroccan music listeners I and just after. With this as foundational concern, I take up in this introduction the notions of modernity and cosmopolitanism as they have been variously conceived and deployed by scholars. Friends, families and strangers; television, radio, and billboard ads; manufactured goods, terms of cultural genres, and foreign word descriptors have all arrived in overlapping waves to Morocco — especially in urban sites — to announce cultural differences that existed in the larger world. Manifestations of these reached higher and higher intercultural levels through the initiation of a number of musical and other culturally-oriented festivals in Morocco e. The implications for cultural, moral and political order stemming from these encounters have brought the notion of cosmopolitanism to the forefront both for many a pragmatist as well as many an abstract thinker. Developing Nationalism, Encounters with Cultural Difference, and Technologies of Communication in North Africa How these encounters with cultural difference have affected notions of individual subjectivity, but also of group formation in North Africa, has been the concern of political thinkers as well as musicians.
This near-wholesale demographic shift was impelled by a number of intertwining factors: Kamal had returned many times in conversation before, as he would also return many times later, to a favorite theme of his: In contemporary contexts for Moroccan musicians in Spain and Morocco, native cultural practitioners on both sides of a geocultural divide have been confronted with such signs of difference: Maroacin crucial set of factors promoting such encounters were changes in Spanish laws internally, as well as new treaties signed between the two countries that allowed for greater access to Spain for Moroccan immigrants in the mids Cornelius Examples of musical practices as ethnic, regional, and especially national cultural patrimonies e.
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These debates were often explicit, divisive, and pronounced, and very much caught up in ideas about the cultural formation rilm the nation of Morocco in the modern era following decolonization, as the next section traces. While some were skeptical that an Arabist basis i.
This led, for one thing, to a greater continuing reliance upon, or adapting from, older customary musical practices from rural locales by Moroccan urban musical culture, but also more interchange between the city and countryside than occurred in many European urban centers that experienced exceptionally explosive growth in the nineteenth century. Besides a broader range of sources from elsewhere overseas from pop music on radio, vinyl disc and cassette from Lebanon and Egypt to soundtracks from imported Bollywood filmsthe growing penetration kandicya American and European popular recordings had a greater kandich greater impact on musical reception and production in Morocco.
Elements of these styles were adopted along with, or indeed overlapping, those chosen aspects of well-known Egyptian musical production. For Mahmood, like Foucault and Butler, the subjective self does not exist prior to individual exposure to the manifestations of social relations, but rather it coalesces out of and in response to those manifestations. These other sources have served as only one set of starting points in a potential web of Moroccan interactions with expanding global networks in late modernity.
To understand the consequences of exchange marocaln cultural divides — from those occurring early and even within moments of first contact between different human groups, to colonial era encounters, and finally to folm cultural, economic, and political interactions in an era of increasingly globalized behaviors–social theorists from Homi Bhabha to Michael Taussig have maroacin the significance of mimetic behavior in the negotiation by humans of their cultural differences.
In this way, a set of popular musical practices congealing in Egypt especially in the first half of the twentieth century among performers such as Umm Kulthum and Muhammed Abdelwahab had achieved a 53 Doukkali was also notable for having spent an extended period of time working and studying stfeaming Egypt, making the connection of likely musical influence from that source even more direct.
These latter were favored in the representation and promotion of Moroccan culture by governmental efforts at designating cultural patrimonies for the nation following the declaration of Moroccan independence in This set real limits on the production and transmission of popular music more generally, as well as on the formation of commercial possibilities in the production of music.
Multiple aspects of modernity are crucially determining for negotiations of cultural difference in each locale, and especially of interest in considering the still-developing post-colonial nation-state of Morocco. More recent studies see, for instance, Izcara continue this focus on economics and group profiling, even while attesting to the social marginalization and psychological alienation experienced by Moroccan migrant workers in contemporary Andalusia.
Such erasures of cultural possibility recall a comment addressed to me by a local news-seller in the southeastern Spanish town of Cartagena in Or, rather, something remains inaccessible or divergent, despite ongoing attempts at mimesis.
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It came to be iconic of certain cultural ideals of Morocco in the s, and there were many more musical imitators following in their wake. But that lack of technical proficiency did not seem to dispel a wide popularity with audiences that made several of these groups iconic for generations to come, primarily for song lyrics that were as politically relevant as they were often poetically elliptical.
In addition to alcha has been reflected from his critical eye, I have learned extensively also from his approach to his own scholarly work, in addition to both larger professional and indeed even life concerns.
Pragmatism, however, demanded that he give in to and even play upon those narrower stereotypes assigned to him, as were projected on to all North African immigrants in Spain who wished to exploit a cultural marketplace that primarily recognized a singular difference for those many individual immigrant personal histories. The emphasis is on Arab music, but again one can note an attempt to attract minority audiences: Encounters across cultural divides have been increasingly impelled by different, particular instantiations of modernity: These forming styles drew upon both those regionally and ethnically specific, often rural musical antecedents, but at the same time they responded to the arrival of new musical instruments, new styles and genres from abroad, along with taking advantage of new forms of production and distribution.
Those complex lessons I have taken away from our many and various interactions over the years will be some I return to over and over in the future, and, I suspect, they will continue to have impact on me over the duration of life itself. Since that time in Morocco, the use of other electronic means for producing, distributing and listening to music has noticeably intensified, with CDs, VCDs, television, satellite broadcast, mobile phones, and use of the internet all now standard media for contemporary storage and distribution of musical performance.
A greater prior reliance on oral transmission for expressing and disseminating cultural ideals in Morocco, for defining subjectivity and the idea of any larger political entity such as the nation, as well as for marking and negotiating with cultural aiicha, has given way to an at least shared basis with written inscriptions by oral means, aiccha the increasing phenomena of telecommunication through media whose own difference both enables new understandings, and re-channels pre-existing cultural expectations and social relations.
I learned so much from both of these encounters. These factors included market considerations for what was already understood and popular in any community or communities; economic resources necessary to purchase streamint manufactured technologies; and access to knowledge of certain forms, styles and genres of musical possibility themselves.
Other Flim Human Movements An additional track of emigration from Morocco in late modernity that is important to consider kandcha that large-scale re-location by Moroccan-born native Jews in the second half of the twentieth century.
This in many ways presaged the arrival and incorporation of other forms of media technology used to negotiate difference in Morocco, as in so many other parts of the world in the modern era. Amanda Minks provided a shining example of how to conduct and follow up on research in sometimes difficult fields with her consistently demonstrated combination of high ideals and practical-minded approach to negotiating work among other people near and far.
Many of those relocations in earlier periods were eh explicitly for the purpose of invading territories within the Iberian Peninsula in order to achieve military conquest and political domination. This gave a distorted and limited range of perspective on those migrants as fundamentally problematic or unwanted Others, one which might occlude for researchers much of kanducha otherwise would have been observable within prevailing circumstances for various actual migrants, though motivations for economic improvement were behind the decision by some Moroccans to emigrate kajdicha in the s.
They also occurred through the implementation of governmental policy-defined national broadcast on radio and television, which helped spread on a aivha basis the knowledge and appreciation of more localized genres. Among those many colleagues whose work in Morocco preceded or paralleled my own, and from whom I learned so much as beneficiary from more direct encounters as well, I am particularly indebted to Alessandra Ciucci, Carl Davila, and Emilio Spadola, whose own travels and articulations have informed my own work to such a great extent from start to finish.
The dominating force among indigenous writers and intellectuals in this period of the idea of a national culture as something to be sought kandocha and constructed, was demonstrated by the high percentage of articles appearing in this small but influential journal which were primarily focused on that idea through the late s and into the s, a general tack that was marocaon up by the more populist journal Lamallif in the s, and then by Tel Quel, beginning in the late s.
Mwrocain included aspects that were both fundamental and trivial, such as choices in style of filmm, the use of different types of technology in creating and listening to music, and different ways of making a living as a musician, as well as different degrees in the social status and social estimation of various musical genres.
Based on fieldwork during the yearsprimarily in the urban sites of Granada, Spain and Fez, Morocco, the project focuses on popular music, how both the production and reception of music are critically bound up with notions of genre, how resulting associations of musical practice are affected by different uses of technology, and how musical practices of all types partake of and help form different ideas of belonging.
Laroussi himself came from a family of musicians both his father marocin brother were also well-known musical performers.