While cycles 1—10 are each 8 minutes long, cycle 13, the last cycle in the syncytial blastoderm, takes 25 minutes to complete. The video shows a sub-region visualization of only the dorsal posterior part of the whole-embryo recording in Movie Imaginal discs are sacs of cells that give rise to adult structures during pupal metamorphosis. This process creates the cellular blastoderm , in which all the cells are arranged in a single-layered jacket around the yolky core of the egg Turner and Mahowald ; Foe and Alberts Cleavage in a Drosophila egg is shown in Figure 9. The DSLM microscopy data was cropped, gamma-corrected and reduced to an 8 bit look-up-table in order to simplify the comparison with the segmentation data. Global three-dimensional pattern of cell divisions. If a division is detected, the object is rendered in magenta and progressively fades back to cyan in the next 5 times points.

Gastrulation begins three hours after fertilization. This movie shows the same reconstruction results as Movie 8, but using a different color map for ellipsoid rendering, encoding information on mitotic wave propagation across the embryo: Reconstruction of zebrafish embryogenesis in the dorsal hemisphere. To reduce the file size of this video, frames were down-sampled by a factor of 1. Figures and S1-S9 in high quality. Volume rendering of neural development recording CGAL4, embryo 2. How does this pattern arise?

Immediately after cellularization, a process taking less than an hour from start to finish, the ventral furrow, which marks the beginning of gastrulation, begins to form.

Movie 15Movie Following cycle 13, the oocyte plasma membrane folds inward between the nuclei, eventually partitioning off each somatic nucleus into a single cell Figure 9. The automatically computed drospohila are in good agreement with the manual reconstruction presented in Rembold et al. Therefore, in insects like Drosophila, the nervous system is located ventrally, rather than being derived from a dorsal neural tube as in vertebrates.

Imaging and reconstruction of zebrafish embryogenesis Figure 3: Movies 1 and 2 for one-photon SiMView recordings of embryos without such patches.

In this example, a late stage 14 embryo is stained with a radioactive nucleotide sequence that specifically recognizes more It begins soon after the start of ventral invagination, and is also a consequence of changes in cell shape requiring Rho1 and DRhoGEF2. Figures and S1-S9 in high quality. In these embryos, the specification of cell types along anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes is accomplished by the interactions of cytoplasmic materials within the single, multinucleated cell. The DSLM microscopy data was cropped, gamma-corrected and reduced to an 8 bit look-up-table in order to simplify the comparison with the segmentation data.


The images were deconvolved with the Lucy-Richardson-algorithm 10 iterations and normalized for constant overall intensity, thus compensating for the increasing intensity over time due to GFP-production. As the posterior midgut primordium begins to invaginate, germ band extention also begins.

C shows the beginning of gastrulation as the ventral mesoderm invaginates into the more A pair of laser scanners moves the excitation laser line vertically and horizontally. Download Movie 2 as a QuickTime file The embryo was recorded in second intervals over a period of 2 hours during germ band retraction, using an image acquisition period of 20 seconds per time point.

The Zebrafish Digital Embryo. While the germ band is in its extended position, several key morphogenetic processes occur: Membranes were imaged using structured illumination SI, top rownuclei using standard light sheet illumination bottom left.

A Drosophila embryo entering the mitotic prophase of its twelfth division was sectioned and triple-stained. For more information on Drosophila developmental anatomy, see Bate and Martinez-Arias ; Tyler and Schetzer ; and Schwalm Anterior and posterior blastdoerm invaginationthe beginning of endoderm formation, is controlled by terminal genes, in particular by tailless, huckebein and forkhead.

Here, the rate of invagination increases, and the actin-membrane complex begins to constrict at what will be the basal end of the cell Schejter and Wieschaus ; Foe et al.

Digital Embryo | Janelia Research Campus

The rest of this chapter is divided into three main parts. The investigators found that whereas wild-type embryos formed their cellular blastoderm immediately after the thirteenth division, the haploid embryos underwent an extra, fourteenth, division before cellularization. At the beginning of the time sequence, the nuclei of cells differentiating into neuroblasts are highlighted by green arrows, whereas the nucleus of the cell differentiating into an epidermoblast is highlighted by an orange arrow.

DSLM time-lapse recording of zebrafish embryogenesis in the animal hemisphere. The nuclear movements are colour-encoded as follows: The prospective endoderm invaginates as two pockets at the anterior and posterior ends of the ventral furrow.

Two-photon SiMView slicing series of a live Drosophila stage 16 embryo. Maternal and zygotic control of serotonin biosynthesis are both necessary for Drosophila germband extension.


The details of imaginal disc differentiation will be discussed in Chapter Histogenesis, organogenesis and differentiation in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster.

Early Drosophila Development – Developmental Biology – NCBI Bookshelf

The movie shows a perspective rendering of the reconstruction as well as nuclei population statistics for the zebrafish wild-type embryo in Movie 7. Support Center Support Center. Source code of 16 core modules of the Digital Embryo processing pipeline. In each frame, the reconstructions at ten time points, corresponding to a time interval of 10 min, are superimposed blasyoderm indicate the nuclear movement directions.

Digital Embryo

The first phase of blastoderm cellularization is characterized by the invagination of cell membranes and their underlying actin microfilament network into the regions between the nuclei to form furrow canals.

Visualization settings as in Movie 3. Localization of the cytoskeleton around nuclei in the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila. Movie 2Movie 3. The first movements crosophila Drosophila gastrulation segregate the presumptive mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm.

The entire data set consists bllastoderm 1, time points, recorded in 60 s intervals. Global cell tracking with parameter settings identical to those used in Movie 9.

The first part concerns how the anterior-posterior axis is specified and how it determines the identity of each segment. Images were deconvolved with the Lucy-Richardson algorithm 5 iterations. The data set consists ofhigh-resolution images 4 terabytes.

Statistical analysis of nuclear properties in the animal hemisphere Figure S4: Sinauer Associates ; Imaginal discs are sacs of cells that give rise to adult structures during pupal metamorphosis. Following image acquisition, the agarose-embedded Drosophila embryo was transferred to the dissection microscope to control for normal hatching of the larva.

The movie shows maximum-intensity projections of a DSLM time-lapse recoding of zebrafish embryonic development, with a view on the embryonic shield. Movie 4Movie 5Movie 6 Download the Matlab database for data set 7. The cropped and compressed DSLM image databases are two terabytes in size and require shipping on hard disks.

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